quarta-feira, janeiro 21, 2004

Managing Across Borders: The Transnational Solution - Bartlett e Ghoshal

Procurar dentro deste livro
Bartlett, C. A. e Ghoshal, S. (1998) Amazon.com: Managing Across Borders: The Transnational Solution, 2nd Edition: on Page 196:
"... found it helpful to focus on two dimensions of the coordination task. The first involves the coordination of the flows between organizational units, while the second relates to the personnel throughout the system. The third is the flow of information: raw data, analyzed information, and accumulated knowledge, which companies must diffuse throughout the worldwide network of national units. It ..."

Entrevista a Christopher A. Bartlett - New Global Business Manager

Globalization: The New Global Business Manager: "Today, global managers need to see the world not just as a collection of national marketplaces, but also as a source of scarce information, knowledge, and expertise—the key resources required in the development and diffusion of innovation worldwide. (...) there are three key groups who should be involved (...) global business managers (...), country managers (...) [and] functional managers who maintain oversight on the company's resources—its financial, human, or information assets—and who are able to see how those need to be developed and diffused around the world."
"If you are a country subsidiary manager, you have to be The game was being defined by giant American, European, and Japanese companies. But now we see new competitors come from smaller countries that, because their home markets are too small to support them, are moving immediately onto the global stage. We also see whole industries that are being born global, particularly the information-based, knowledge-intensive service economy."
"(...) you have to be sensitive and responsive to national differences. You had better not put someone in there who is an arrogant, ethnocentric person. It is important to understand country differences as strengths, not as impediments to your operation. (...) use the world as a source of ideas and expertise;"

Globalização e Publicidade - as questões culturais

Scanlon, J. (2004). JWT’s Early Contribution to Globalization Excerto de artigo interessante dado que a publicidade implica directamente com as questões culturais e linguísticas - pena não estar completo (apenas para quem subscreve a Business History Review).

quarta-feira, janeiro 14, 2004

Regra número 1.... (2 e 3)!

Quando estiverem na fase de redacção da dissertação, NUNCA, mas NUNCA façam o «replace» do ficheiro. Vão salvando uma versão para cada dia de trabalho. Porque é que digo isto? Devido à «mania das limpezas» e ao cansaço acumulado, ontem descobri que estava a trabalhar numa versão antiga e que, imaginem, o que me lembrava de lá ter colocado (benditos apontamentos do caderno de campo e do blog) não existia! Quando derem por estar maníacos com «backups» de segurança em MemorySticks, CDs, Desktop, Portátil, em casa, no local de trabalho, no cofre, na mala, no carro... Já sabem, estão a trabalhar para a dita dissertação. A parte boa, é que este sentimento se vai agudizando com o tempo - o que quer dizer que quanto pior nos sentirmos, mais perto devemos estar do fim... também pode querer dizer que já ultrapassámos o prazo de entrega ;-)

Klaus KRIPPENDORFF (1995)

A importância da «linguagem» - Krippendorff, K. (1995). Undoing Power.: "Languaging is a social process in which we jointly construct realities for each of us to see, occupy and to talk into. Evidently, languaging can open our 'eyes' to alternative ways of seeing and create new ways of being-with Others."

sexta-feira, janeiro 09, 2004

Expatriate Concessions

33/2002: Switzerland - Expatriate Concessions: "The article (...) discusses the Federal expatriate regulation and includes an overview of similar rules that apply in the Canton of Zurich. The article also discusses recent developments regarding reasonable double housing expenses. "
(...)
Expatriate expenses
Once a foreign employee qualifies as an expatriate, the following distinction is made to establish the scope of expenses that may be reimbursed tax-free.
a) Expatriate still resident abroad
- Travel costs between the permanent home abroad and Switzerland
- Temporary accommodation costs in Switzerland, e.g., hotel costs
- Reasonable housing expenses in Switzerland (condition: permanent home abroad maintained)
b) Expatriate resident in Switzerland
- Costs for transportation of the household goods to Switzerland and back to the home country, plus travel costs for the employee
and his family to and from Switzerland at the beginning and end of the assignment
- Reasonable housing expenses in Switzerland (condition: permanent home abroad maintained)
- School costs for an international foreign-language school in Switzerland, if no suitable Swiss school is available
The following expenses are not exempted from taxation:
- Cost of maintaining the permanent home abroad
- Furnishing of Swiss housing
- Legal assistance
- Allowances intended to compensate for price differences between home and host country"

European Labour Mobility

"[15-Feb-2002] One of the key principles of the European Union is the creation of 'an area without internal frontiers in which free movement of goods, persons, services and capital is ensured'. EU leaders have stressed the importance they attach to realising this goal. In practice, the EU's progress has been mixed, and the relatively low level of international labour mobility within the EU is significant for business, individuals and policy makers. Against this background, PricewaterhouseCoopers has undertaken an in-depth study of European labour mobility entitled Managing mobility matters - A European perspective."

Eight key types of mobile worker from the business perspective:

- ‘Traditional’ expatriate: employee moves to live and work in a foreign location, traditionally long-term (3-5yrs) but increasingly short-term (up to 1yr)
- ‘Permanent’ transfer employee takes up a permanent contract of employment on local terms and conditions
- International hire recruited to work on local terms and conditions from another country
- Local hire foreign-born individuals already working outside their ‘home country’ who are
recruited locally
- Cross-border commuter commutes to work in another country while place of residence remains unchanged
- Rotational assignee commutes from home country for a few months without changing home
- Virtual assignee assumes responsibility spanning several countries without relocating (supported by
local teams, business travel and ICT)
- Teleworking works from any location supported by ICT



As cinco barreiras encontradas neste trabalho quanto à mobilidade, segundo a empresa:

1 Lack of integrated employment legislation
2 Differing tax systems
3 Need to provide spouse employment
4 Language skills
5 Differing benefit systems

As cinco barreiras encontradas neste trabalho quanto à mobilidade, segundo os indivíduos:

1 Family e.g. child education
2 Language skills
3 Information on employment opportunities
4 Recognition of qualifications
5 Spouse employment

Survey Results - Expatriates in Europe

Expatriates in Europe Survey Results: "[12-June-2001] International Assignments - This publication highlights key trends from our fourth survey examining international assignment management among companies in Europe. Previous surveys were carried out in 1993, 1995 and 1997."

quarta-feira, janeiro 07, 2004

Review: Managing across cultures

Review: Managing across cultures: "Warner M. and Joynt P. eds. Managing across cultures: issues and perspectives. 2nd ed. London: Thomson learning, 2002. xii, 284 p. ISBN 1-86152-973-2. £27.99.
The second edition of 'Managing across cultures: issues and perspectives' has been revised and updated since it first appeared in 1996. The new edition includes contributions from many of the most outstanding authors in the field of cross-cultural and comparative management, such as Derek Pugh and David Hickson, John Child, Nancy Adler, Geert Hofstede, Fons Trompenaars, Rosalie Tung, Frank Heller, and Fred Luthans amongst others."

Niedźwiedzka, B. (2003). A proposed general model of information behaviour.



Fonte: Niedźwiedzka, B. (2003) "A proposed general model of information behaviour", in Information Research, 9(1) paper 164 [Available at http://InformationR.net/ir/9-1/paper164.html].

Neste artigo Niedźwiedzka discute o modelo proposto por Wilson (1996), colocando a enfase no contexto onde se encontram as variáveis (personel, role related, environmental) permitindo que estas possam estar presentes em qualquer uma das fases. No entanto, embora de leitura mais fácil, não permite a identificação imediata das teorias que ajudam a interpretar e compreender os «comportamentos de informação», ao contrário do modelo de Wilson.

No estudo das necessidades de informação dos expatriados, com a qual tenho estado ocupada, começa a desenhar-se, através da análise dos dados recolhidos, uma questão para a qual ainda não tenho explicação e que passo a descrever: estes expatriados (pertencentes a uma organização do sector financeiro português) ao serem deslocados para um outro país onde a empresa mãe tem operações a decorrer (para o presente estudo foram contactados e entrevistados expatriados que estão em 3 países diferentes), algumas das necessidades de informação não são enunciadas pelos indivíduos, ou seja, não existe a pré-condição «identification information need» no entanto, parecem estar presentes actividades do «cycle of information» embora a um nível não identificado pelos indivíduos, o que seria o caso do «comportamento de procura de informação» passiva enunciado no modelo de Wilson (1996) e que no modelo de Niedźwiedzka (2003) parece não estar comtemplado porquanto pressupõe a «identificação de uma necessidade de informação» seguida da «decisão de procurar informação».
Comentários? Ajuda? Explicações adicionais?...

sábado, janeiro 03, 2004

Mais uma referência ao potencial do «Search inside» da Amazom

Apenas para testar a possibilidade de inclusão da funcionalidade de pesquisar «dentros dos livros» da Amazon. Pensando que queria encontrar dentro do livro Psychology of Culture Shock todas as passagens em que «U-curve» fosse encontrada - U-curve . O potencial parece enorme. Será que não podem negociar esta funcionalidade com os editores para os livros de que somos detentores? No caso da Amazon seria fácil verificarem através do nosso historial de compras! No final de mais um dia de trabalho sabe bem fantasiar...

Diversidade cultural nas organizações

Research on Domestic and International Diversity in Organizations: A Merger that Works? "Future research could help organizations develop practices to address the host nationals' attitudes towards expatriates." e vice-versa.

Adaptação dos expatriados ao mercado de consumo local

Cultural Adaptation of Business Expatriates in the Host Marketplace
"Satisfaction with the host culture has been found to influence the ex-patriate’s commitment to the local operation and to the parent company. This paper investigates the role that the expatriate’s consumer experiences play in the determination of his/her satisfaction with her new culture."

British Expatriates in Global Financial Centres

Embeddedness, Knowledge and Networks: British Expatriates in Global Financial Centres
"As British financial transnational corporations (TNCs) have continued to concentrate their activities within global financial centres, they have become key locations for expatriate labour, whose specific knowledge, expertise, skills and intelligence are required in situ because of the crucial roles they have in ‘face-to-face’ contact between firm and client, financial markets, and business and social networks. The role of expatriate workers in global financial centres, however, still remains a relatively ‘invisible’ facet of globalization processes in the world economy. This project aims to provide a detailed and rigorous analysis of this very important and neglected facet of globalization."