sábado, abril 17, 2004

Ideias de abordagem para futuros trabalhos sobre internacionalização

Liesch, P. W.; Welch, L. S.; Welch, D.; McGaughey, S. L.; Petersen, B. e Lamb, P. (2002).Evolving Strands of Research on Firm Internationalization: an Australian-Nordic Perspective. International Studies of Management & Organizations, Vol. 32 (1), pp. 16-35.

"When confronted with uncertainty, the search for uncertainty-reducing information motivates actions that initiate a process of information acquisition and subsequent information-to-knowledge translation. Information is needed on all of those observables and non-observables that comprise business environments (Knight and Liesch 2002). In the present firm internationalization context, there is much observable information on foreign market characteristics, product-market combinations, transaction requirements, and the like. However, uncertainty pervades the process of firm internationalization and derives, in large part, from the non-observable components of information and its translation into actionable knowledge relating to international venturing. These components are the relational formulations among variables that remain unknown to all but the successfully internationalizing firm (e.g., know-how), and which constitute a major field of empirical research in international business." p.19

"(...) latter research demonstrates how the decomposition of the knowledge concept can provide an important basis for following knowledge processes at work in internationalization and, ultimately, in developing a more robust process theory of firm internationalization." p.20

"Networks often are critical to providing the type of information that contributes to lowering risk and uncertainty inherent in international operations. As Macdonald (1996) demonstrated, much of the knowledge that a firm needs for its international operations is contained in its external networks. Thus, building and maintaining relevant networks are an integral part of the internationalization process, as both outcomes and inputs into the process. (...) Within Kone, corporate language proficiency was shown to be an important factor in enabling some individuals to act as powerful information gatekeepers in certain countries. Expatriates with the requisite language
skills played a pre-eminent role as “language nodes” in information dissemination and knowledge transfer.
." p.21-21

"While it is somewhat self-evident that key concepts such as psychic distance, information flows, networks, and learning are person-bound, a curious aspect related to the development of ideas about the process of internationalization is the relative neglect of issues relating to the role of individuals. (...) Likewise, moving expatriates from subsidiary operations can damage relationships with key actors in the local network, and therefore affect upon subsidiary performance (...) The growing body of literature in international human resource management
recognizes the role of expatriates as knowledge-transfer agents and informal communication conduits; but the link to their role in the internationalization process is rarely drawn
." p.21

Necessidades de investigação para a Internacionalização das Organizações

"Experiential knowledge was seen as a key factor, but exactly how this factor operates has not been fully understood. Recent technological developments in information transmission associated with the Internet have again raised the question of how a firm acquires and internalizes information to enable uncertainty reduction. While recent developments in electronic business might lubricate the international transaction (Liesch and Knight 1999), and enable more timely and direct access to information on foreign markets, it remains to be learned whether the processes of firm internationalization are made more certain and present less risk through these developments
(Petersen, Welch, and Liesch 2000
). (...) In the cross-border transfer of information and knowledge, research has shown that the importance of language issues remains, and that there is a need to consider their impact on firm internationalization, apart from inclusion in the psychic-distance composite. (...) Research on “people issues” in internationalization may well herald a more general return to behavioral aspects as a basis for understanding core factors in firms’ internationalization. Bringing people to “center stage” requires a reconsideration of how individuals locate, transfer, and incorporate information; gain foreign market experience and knowledge; and build, use, and manage networks—not just in the early stages of internationalization, but in terms of supporting international business development and expansion over time. Equally important, further examination of the role of people would need to include how firms identify, collect, and harvest the wealth of knowledge embedded in their staff to form a composite, explicit source that firms can draw on to extend internationalization." p.28-30

"In order to assist researchers in this field, it is essential that methodologies be adopted that expose complex phenomena, rather than reducing complex phenomena to simplistic relationships for the purposes of ease of data collection and empirical testing." p.30

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